Because of its dependence on the hepatitis B virus, hepatitis D diagnosis requires the presence of hepatitis surface antigen (HBsAg). It has the following diagnostic tests:
D antigen (HDAg): Your blood screening is not performed routinely, as the antigen circulates bound in complex with the antibody. Their detection is usually transient during acute infection.
RNA: The detection can be performed by hybridization (detection limit from 104 to 106 copies/mL) or PCR (detection limit 10 copies/mL).
Antibodies: the standard in the diagnosis of infection with hepatitis D are total antibodies (IgM + IgG). Appear late in acute infection and are present in high titers during chronic infection. In the acute infection resolved, the titles tend to decrease over time. IgM is maintained over time and its securities are correlated with replication and hepatic inflammatory activity. (more…)
Infection with hepatitis D always occurs in the presence of infection with hepatitis B virus. Usually the hepatitis D virus inhibits HBV replication, so that liver disease is caused by D virus in patients with chronic infection. It can be distinguished 3 clinical forms of infection:
Co-infection: This occurs with exposure of an individual susceptible to the virus simultaneously B and D. Its clinical presentation is indistinguishable from a classical hepatitis B, although often more serious and can have a biphasic course. Frequently recovered, since it depends on B virus for replication. The rate of chronicity of hepatitis B (5% in adults) is not affected by the presence of infection by viruses D. (more…)
It is estimated that approximately 5% of people chronically infected with hepatitis B virus are also infected with D, which represents about 15 million infected worldwide. The infection is not always directly related to the prevalence of infection with hepatitis B virus
The routes of transmission are similar to those for hepatitis B, with parenteral transmission. It is interesting to note that your transmission is apparently lower in homosexuals, intravenous drug users predominate in hemophiliacs.
The infection is endemic in the Mediterranean basin, particularly in southern Italy (where the virus was described for the first time.) Has also been reported in the Far East, Pacific Islands and parts of South America. There has been described in Chile. The incidence of infection is probably in decline. (more…)
Hepatitis D virus, also called delta virus or agent is a defective virus that requires the presence of hepatitis B virus to replicate. We can distinguish the following components in its structure:
Outline of the structure of hepatitis D virus The virus has a single circular strand of RNA associated with a protein antigen (HDV). There are 70 HDV antigen molecules per viral particle. This structure is surrounded by a housing that includes lipoprotein surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg). (more…)
Rest: Rest is useful to the extent that people feel non-profit and aims to prevent school mates or work from getting sick. No longer show these long and strict bed rest is recommended once.
Diet: Must be be a lightweight system to decrease nausea and vomiting that often have these patients. The decrease in fat and fried foods have this goal. In the recovery phase is important to increase protein intake moderately high quality (milk, eggs, meat) to help regenerate the liver.
Symptom severity: There are two symptoms that may indicate severity. First, the nausea and vomiting, and second impairment of consciousness (tendency to sleepiness). The presence of these symptoms should alert to consult your doctor immediately. (more…)
Hepatitis type A is a disease characterized by acute inflammation of the liver caused by hepatitis A. The incubation period (time between arrival of the virus to the body and the development of the disease) ranges from 15 to 49 days. This virus is transmitted through ingestion of food contaminated with the virus, often raw or uncooked vegetables irrigated with sewage.
It is very common in children, although most of them do not show symptoms when the virus. Those who develop symptoms (approx. 5% of children), nausea, dark urine (urine color “Coca-Cola”) and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). 70% of adults have symptoms. Some of those affected, less than 1%, can develop fulminant liver failure, requiring liver transplantation arrive. However, in most cases the disease goes without leaving any sequelae and liver regenerates completely. (more…)